Where did Satan come from?

The Devil, Beelzebub, the prince of darkness, Apollyon, Lucifer, the evil one. Satan.

In the Christian worldview Satan is seen as the chief enemy of God, the first rebel and the instigator of sin in humanity. Those with a Biblical background see Satan at work in the serpent that tempted Eve to sin in the Garden of Eden, as the spiritual being working through the antichrist in the last days and as an active agent for evil throughout history. Satan accuses Job, afflicts Jesus and prowls about like a roaring lion seeking for his prey.

Where did this evil being come from? Did God create the father of lies?

Satan first appears on the Biblical stage in Genesis 3 in the guise of a serpent. Though Satan is not named in the book of Genesis, the book of Revelation states that the serpent in the garden was the Devil. John sees “that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world:” (Revelation 12:9) I believe Satan possessed the serpent, like demons would later possess men and beasts (Matthew 8:31), and used that creature to deceive Eve.

The Bible does not specifically tell of Satan’s origins. Other statements of the Bible direct us to an answer. Satan is a created being. Everything that exists owes its existence to God. Colossians 1:16 specifically mentions the creation of angelic beings, “For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:” Because nothing exists that was not made by God we can be certain Satan was created by God.

Everything God created was perfect. Genesis 1 describes God’s act of creation. Though the opening chapter of the Bible does not describe the creation of angels (and in fact, the Bible does not anywhere describe the creation of angels), the reasonable assumption is that God created all angelic beings sometime during the creation week. I believe God created the angels on the first day when He created “the heaven and the earth”. Regardless of when God created angels, He created them and He created them perfect. Psalm 18:30 says all that God does is perfect. At the end of the creation week God examined all His work and declared it “very good”. All of creation, including the angels, was perfect and exactly as He intended it to be.

Satan was created by God as a perfect creature. The Bible speaks of Satan’s sin and rebellion. In Ezekiel 28 God pronounces judgment on the King of Tyre. The judgment includes the earthly ruler of Tyre (vs. 1-9) and the spiritual power behind the wicked king- Satan. (vs. 11-19) Satan sinned, was cast out of his exalted position and condemned to God’s judgment.

Ezekiel 28:15 sums up the origin and sin of Satan, “Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee.”

Would you Vote for Cyrus?

Several Christian groups have touted Donal Trump as a modern day Cyrus the Great. Cyrus was an idolatrous pagan and a wicked king, but the Bible says in Isaiah 45:1 that Cyrus is God’s anointed. Since God raised up Cyrus to return the Jews to Jerusalem, He could be raising up Donald Trump to restore America. One preacher provocatively asked, “Would you vote for Cyrus?”. He went on to say that Christian’s need not be overly concerned about the private morality of presidential candidates. Is this kind of application a proper use of Isaiah 45?

Isaiah 45 is one of the great prophetic passages that supports the truth that the Bible is God’s Word. Isaiah 44 and 45 show the Sovereignty of God over the nations. He is accomplishing all His purposes and establishing governments. He sets up and overthrows leaders at His will. (Daniel 2:20)

God’s Sovereignty over the nations is one reason I can say with confidence that President Obama was set in place by God for His purposes. I can say with equal confidence that whoever wins this election will be the leader appointed by God. God did not ordain Cyrus because he was a good person. Nor can Cyrus be excused as a flawed leader. Cyrus was a wicked king who did not fear or worship God. Cyrus sent the Jews back to Jerusalem as a part of his political strategy, not to honor God.

God used Cyrus’ sinful, self-seeking schemes to accomplish His good purposes for His people. In the case of Cyrus it was the restoration of the people Jerusalem. In an earlier case God chose Nebuchadnezzar as His appointed servant to take Jews into captivity (Jeremiah 25). Would you vote for Nebuchadnezzar?

The question, “Would you vote for Cyrus?” is not relevant to Isaiah 45 but deflects away from the true point of the passage. The question hints that Christian’s would have been right to vote for Cyrus. Christian’s are responsible for making God-honoring, moral choices built on the revelation of God’s Word. Christians’ are not responsiible to figure out how God is going to accomplish His plan. God did not vote for Cyrus. God appointed Him as His servant to accomplish His will.

In Proverbs 16:4 we are told, “The LORD hath made all things for himself: yea, even the wicked for the day of evil.” God’s use of individuals to accomplish His purposes must never be seen as an approval of that person or their actions.

Scripture declared the Messiah was to be crucified. Jesus’ death brings salvation to the world and eternal blessing to those who believe. Though this was all part of God’s plan Judas was condemned by God for his betrayal of Jesus. Jerusalem suffered greatly for demanding the execution of her Messiah. Pilate fell under God’s judgment for condemning Jesus to death.

Those who take it a step further and say that since God used Cyrus He is going to use Trump have a serious flaw in their reasoning. Since God used Cyrus, God can also use Clinton. Why aren’t they saying vote Hillary? What Divine revelation is telling them God has ordained Trump instead of Clinton?

Isaiah 45 is a great passage about the Sovereignty of the Creator God over His creation. It gives great hope as we see God is accomplishing His eternal purposes through the nations and leaders of this world. He appointed our current president for a purpose and the next president will accomplish His will. Why waste time turning the rich truths of God’s Sovereignty into a cheap campaign ad?

Is the Holy Spirit the personfication of God’s power?

Is the Holy Spirit a force? Or is the Holy Spirit a personal being and a member of the Triune Godhead with the same eternal existence as God the Father and God the Son?

The Holy Spirit is the effective agent through which God works in this world. The Holy Spirit can accurately be described as that which accomplishes the will of God on earth. Some have concluded from this that the Spirit is a force and a personification of the power of God.

The term “person” is not being used to mean a human being. The question is not if the Holy Spirit is human. Person is used to describe a personal being, an entity with intellect, will and emotion. In contrast to a person is force or energy which are impersonal. Gravity is a force, with no ability to think, no feelings about what it is doing and ability to determine when it will and will not act.

The Holy Spirit is not a force. The Holy Spirit is not a personification of God’s power in this world. The Holy Spirit is a person, the third person of the Trinity.

The Holy Spirit has a name, a name in which others act. Forces are named, but no one acts in that name of that force. None declare, “In the name of magnetism I christen this boat”, nor do any announce “By the power of electricity I declare you man and wife.” The Holy Spirit is a named entity under whose authority and in whose name Christian’s are commanded to act. “Baptizing them in the name of Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” (Matthew 28:19)

The Holy Spirit has emotions. The Spirit of God can be grieved. “And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God.” (Ephesians 4:30) A force has no feelings. Gravity is not disappointed when a man barely escapes falling.

The Holy Spirit has a will. He makes decisions and acts according to His purposes. Friction does not decide to make the road more slippery for one car and less slippery for another. Forces operate according to the laws of physics and the purposes of a person guiding those forces. The Holy Spirit acts according to His own will. “But all these (spiritual gifts) worketh that selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as He wills.” (1 Corinthians 12:11)

The Holy Spirit has intellect and understanding. Air resistance does not increase as a car accelerates because it understands velocity and aerodynamics. All forces are dumb having no understanding of the their own operation nor the world around them. The ability to make decisions indicates intellect. The Bible speaks of the “mind of the Spirit”. The Holy Spirit examines and knows the deep wisdom of God. (1 Corinthians 2:10-11) The Holy Spirit understands the will of God (Romans 8:26-27).

The Holy Spirit has all the attributes of a personal entity. He is a member of the Triune Godhead. He is as much God as the Father and the Son. He possesses all the perfections of God. The Holy Spirit is not an impersonal force. He is the God of the Bible.

Who made God?

Zeus, the king of the Greek gods, was the child of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. He ascended to throne of the gods by overthrowing his father.

The father of the Viking gods, Odin, was the son of Bor and grandson of the first viking god, Buri. Buri came from the icefields of Niflheim and was uncovered by a giant frost cow’s licking of the ice. Odin became the chief of the gods as a result of his role in defeating the frost ogre Ymir, making the world from Ymir’s corpse and giving life to the first humans.

Many ancient religions represent their chief gods as the offspring of another. Imagining gods as having ancestors is logical since every living being has a predecessor. Human experience teaches that life comes from preexisting life. What about the God of the Bible? What is the story of His origin?

The Bible presents God as without origin. This is hard to fathom, since all we know has an origin. Human reasoning rightly recognizes that something that has no beginning does not exist. Except, God exists without a beginning.

God has always existed. Reach far back into the ancient depths of eternity and God is there. His existence stretches away into a realm which we cannot comprehend. In the dark past before the creation of the universe God eternally existed.
Psalm 90:2, “Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God.”
Psalm 93:2, “Thy throne is established of old: thou art from everlasting.”

God has no antecedent. No one, no being, no universe, no force, no energy, no thought, nothing, came before God. He owes His existence to none. He follows after none.
Isaiah 44:6, “Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.”

None came before God and God has eternally existed. As difficult as it is to comprehend, there has never been a point when God did not exist. God never sprang into existence. God never caused Himself to exist. God has always existed.

God has eternally existed because He is not dependent on any. In His infinite perfection God requires no one and no thing to complete Him or to assist Him. God is eternally self-existent. Everything else that exists, whether it be spiritual or physical, material or immaterial owes its existence to God. Space, energy, time, force, matter, spirit, angel and demon were all created by the uncreated Creator. Nothing created God.

Lest there be any confusion on this point, the Triune Godhead has eternally existed as a Trinity. The Father, Son and Spirit eternally existed. None were brought into existence by another. No person of the Trinity is dependent on the other for His existence. God has eternally existed as a Trinity.

The eternal existence of God is incredibly difficult to understand. Everything we know is dependent on something else. God is infinitely greater than everything else. The truth of His eternal self-existence highlights the unfathomable magnitude of God’s greatness.

Why is Jesus called the only begotten Son of God?

This article is a follow up to the recent article regarding Jehovah’s Witnesses. A reader submitted a comment defending the Jehovah’s Witnesses as Christians. I did not approve the comment but want to respond to an objection raised in the comment. Before doing so I want to interject some comments about commenting on this blog.

I filter every comment. I will only approve comments which further legitimate discussion about the topic at hand. Comments which ignore the substance of the article, which raise questions already addressed in other posts or which regurgitate the long standing assertions with little regard to the Bible are going to be rejected. Comments which ask vaild questions or raise pertinent points that are profitable for discussion will be approved. This is not a debate blog. This is not a forum for everyone to spout their opinions- Mark Zuckerberg invented a place for that. This blog is an intentional teaching and evangelizing tool that answers questions about the Bible and Biblical Christianity. I am unapologetically the supreme dictator of the comment section and will only approve comments which in my sole discretion I consider as furthering worthwhile conversation.

I did not approve the comment about Jehovah’s Witnesses but do want to respond to one statement. The commenter said, “Jehovah’s Witnesses . . . do not deny the words of God Who does not tell lies and declares Jesus to be His only begotten son.” If Jesus is eternally God and equal with the Father in essence, nature and power then why does the Bible call him the Son of God? Why is Jesus presented as begotten of God if He has always existed as God?

The title of Son of God is used of Jesus in reference to His incarnation. In other words, Jesus was the Son of God in His birth as a human by the working of God. Jesus is the begotten of God because the supernatural power of God worked through miraculous means for His birth. Mary gave birth to a baby boy by the working of God without the usual biological means of becoming pregnant. Jesus is the only begotten because He is the only One born of woman without a human father.

The gospel of Luke calls Adam the son of God. Jesus is far greater than Adam but this comparison is helpful in understanding why Jesus is called the Son of God. Adam was the son of God in the sense that he came into existence without parents because God created him. Similarly, Jesus became a man because of the direct working of God. Jesus was born fully human, while remaining fully Divine, because of the supernatural working of God in Mary’s body.

Jesus is not the Son of God because at some point in eternity past God the Father brought the Son into existence. Jesus is the Son of God becaus He came into the world, becoming human through the miraculous working of the Father and the Spirit.

“For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”
John 3:16

Were the Old Testament Israelites saved by keeping the Law?

A recent answer stated that the people who lived before Jesus was born were saved by looking ahead to the promised Savior and trusting Him for their salvation. Some may wonder about the law of Moses. If people before Jesus were saved by trusting God’s promises to save, why did God give the law to the Israelites?

Historically, many Israelites believed they could be saved by obeying the Mosaic law. The Pharisees in Jesus’ day believed they were righteous because they were the children of Abraham who kept the law of Moses and the traditions of their fathers. All throughout the Old Testament the Israelites seemed frequently to misunderstand the role of the law. Even today many people look at the Old Testament and think the Israelites gained eternal life by being devout keepers of all the commands, rituals and sacrifices given through Moses. Is this true? Were the Israelites saved by obeying the law of Moses?

No Israelite was ever saved by his obedience to the law. The major theme of Romans and Galatians is the inability of the law to save. Galatians 2:16 says, “Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.” No one was ever justified- made righteous before God- by keeping the law. Old Testament Israelites were saved by trusting God for forgiveness of sin. Habakkuk 2:4 says, “the just shall live by his faith.” In Psalm 32 David rejoices in the blessings of being forgiven. He does not associate forgiveness with his keeping of the law but with the grace and mercy of God. David acknowledged his sin to God. He cried out in confession of his guilt and God gave forgiveness. Throughout the Psalms David declares that God is his salvation. The salvation that David describes is always based upon the compassion of God, not the obedience of the individual. He that could be righteous enough to earn salvation would have no need of forgiveness. In the Old Testament God never forgave because men earned His salvation. God forgave because of His great compassion. God poured out mercy on those who sought it from him.

The book of Isaiah is full of promises about the coming Jewish King and Savior. The Messiah and His kingdom are described at length. Isaiah ends with a great confession of sin and a plea for God to pardon the Israelites. Isaiah 64 recognizes the righteousness of men is no righteousness at all. The only answer, the only hope for Old Testament Israel, was to be pardoned by God. Isaiah 53 describes the work of the Messiah to gain that pardon and the eleventh verse says, “He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities.” Old Testament Israelites were saved by Jesus’ bearing their sin on the cross. God’s judgment was satisfied by the suffering of His Son. Jesus makes men righteous, whether those men live now or 3,000 years ago, by carrying on His shoulders the consequences of their sin. Salvation is always, and only, by Jesus. “Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.” (Acts 4:12)

How does God show goodness to those who never hear the gospel?

Recent articles have dealth with justice and goodness of God in sending people to hell. Though one can understand the necessity of hell and even admit eternal punishment in hell is good act by a good God. A small nagging thought remains that God is not really good to those who are condemned to hell. If God is really good and if Jesus’ death on the cross is sufficient to forgive every sin of every person why wouldn’t God make sure that every one believed the gospel? Yet God is good. He shows His goodness to all men. None are condemned to hell because of a lack in the goodness of God but because the wickedness of men moves them to reject God’s obvious goodness. How is God good to all men, even those who never hear the gospel?

God is good in giving and sustaining life. None come into this world only because of biological processes. God’s goodness is the ultimate source of life men and His goodness sustains their life. “For in Him we live and move and have our being.” (Acts 17:28) More than the granting of life to men God’s goodness is daily evident by His delaying judgment on individuals and the whole world. “It is of the LORD’S mercies that we are not consumed, because his compassions fail not.” (Lamentations 3:22)

God is good in giving the blessings of daily provision to all men. In His goodness God sends rain and sun on the just and the unjust alike. “He maketh His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sendeth rain on the just and the unjust.”(Matthew 5:34) God could send only fair weather on the just and send torment only to the unsaved. He could mark out the unsaved to be victims of horrible plagues like He did the Egytpians. In His gracious goodness God does not do these things. He gives to men what is necessary for life and what is good for happiness. “He causeth the grass to grow fro the cattle, and herb for the service of man: that he may bring forth food out of the earth; and wine that maketh glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face to shine , and bread which strengtheneth man’s heart.” In their sin men turn the good gifts of God into replacements for God yet God is still good and continues to He makes testimony of Him clear through nature.

God is good in giving a daily declaration of His greatness. Every day every one sees and hears testimony of God. Through the rising of the sun, the passing of the seasons, the growing of flowers, the running of streams and the granting of food God declares Himself to be God. All creation is a reminder that men are contigent creatures. Every person is dependent on something outside himself to sustain his existence. Every person is dependent on things beyond his control for his continued life. God gives those things that man needs to live. The continued operation of the universe in its accustomed fashion is testimony to the majesty of God. In His goodness He has given mankind this constant reminder of Him.

In His goodness to the world God has sent out His servants to preach the gospel. God could have chosen to limit the gospel message to only one family of people. He could have locked the gospel behind closed doors restricted only to the select few. He did none of these things. Since the very beginning God has made salvation known to the whole world. Today God is making the gospel known to the world through Christians going taking the gospel across the globe. Even this blog and it’s accompanying radio broadcast is an evidence of the goodness of God. Christians are using a myriad of means to proclaim the gospel in every corner of world. This ever expanding missionary effort is the direct result of the goodness of God. God has sent out His children as ambassadors to tell every person on earth of the saving grace of God. He knows most will reject, some will scorn and some will assault the messengers of salvation, but God continues to show His goodness to the world by sending His children out as “sheep in the midst of wolves” (Matthew 10:16).

The greatest evidence of the goodness of God is His promise to all men. God promises any who seek Him will find Him. God does not hide Himself from those who wish to know the truth. Those who are thirsty are invited to come and to those who desire the water of life it will be freely given.

Read Psalm 104 for further reflection on this theme.

How is an eternal hell just?

Some view eternal suffering in the lake of fire to be as reasonable as shooting a puppy for wetting the carpet. A good, loving God would never be party to such an extreme injustice. Yet Christian teaching declares that eternal hell is just, good and necessary. How can eternal punishment in torments of flames and darkness be justice?

Justice is the legal response to wrong that brings punishment in proportion with the severity of the crime committed. Contrary to justice is revenge. Revenge is the personal, illegal act of making another endure the same pain that the injured person feels. Justice is not motivated by a desire to get even but by a recognition of the true damage done by a crime. The Old Testament law of “an eye for an eye” was not a prescription for personal revenge but a description of legitimate justice which responded to wrong based upon the extent of harm done. Similar principles of justice are still seen in courts today. The accidental causing of another’s death is treated differently from negligently contributing to the death of a person which is treated differently from suddenly striking down a person which is treated differently from planning and executing the murder of another. Premeditated murder of an adult is treated differently from the intentional murder of an infant. The intent of the crime and the innocence of the victim legitimately affect the response to that crime. Along with murder treason usually brings the severest of punishments. Though treason does not always take another’s life, such a harsh response is generally recognized as just because treason offends the dignity of the ruling power and it threatens the safety of many others within the country. Treason is a repudiation of one’s former allegiances that seeks the harm of ones own country, including friends and neighbors, and thus merits stern penalties.

What does treason have to do with the justice of hell? To understand the justice of hell one must understand the true horribleness of sin. Sin is no mere accident. Sin is first and foremost a willful act of rebellion against the God of heaven. God is Creator of all things and sole Ruler over all creation. Sin is therefore an act of treason far greater than any national treachery. Sin is mutiny against the perfect Creator. Sin is a repudiation of God, self and fellow man. Disobedience against God is an act of treason that wrongs God, injures self and wounds others. Disobedience against God is worse than mere treason. Disobedience against God is the attempt to overthrow God as ruler of your life and to inaugurate your own self as lord of your own destiny. This treachery is not only treason it is attempt to seize power from the Divine.

Since sin is the rejection of God as God and rebellion against His rule sin causes uncalculable harm to the individual and others around. Sin has wreaked havoc across the world. Sin is responsible for the death of billions and for the anguish felt in every part of creation. Every person born on the planet is complicit with sin. How can such evil against one’s Creator, Sovereign and God not require the greatest of punishments? Because sin is the rebellion of creature against the infinite, eternal Creator the scope of sin is limitless. A just response is measured to be appropriate to the scope of crime committed. A limitless crime requires a limitless payment. No finite creature is able to satisfy justice through any punishment of limited duration. The only appropriate judgment for a crime of infinite severity is an infinite punishment. Hell is just.

How could a good God send to hell people who have never heard the gospel?

Eternal punishment of humans in a place of fire, darkness and extreme torment may be accepted as a necessity of justice but can it really be a good thing? More importantly, can one be good who would condemn a person to unending torture? This issue has been offered by some skeptics as conclusive proof the God of the Bible is not real. This issue has resulted in Christians suggesting varieties of universal salvation (Recently seen in the book, “Love Wins”), views of mitigated judgment that results in a near universal salvation (purgatory), and pithy statements declaring it’s really men who choose to go to hell (“God doesn’t send anyone to hell, people choose to go there”). Variants of these themes abound attempting to show that God is not the bad guy.

Understanding this difficult question begins with the reality of justice. Justice is not a social construct that institutionalizes or rationalizes revenge. Justice is the proper moral response to evil. Justice measures the moral weight of the wrong done and responds with an equally weighty consequence. Justice is based on an absolute standard of morality- God’s character. God’s justice is always a reflection of God’s character. If God’s justice is capricious, excessive or petty then God Himself is capricious, excessive or petty.

Since all justice is based on the character of God and God’s justice is a reflection of His character none can argue that God’s punishment of sin is arbitrary or excessive. When God created people He warned Adam and Eve they would die if they sinned against Him. The death foretold begins with separation from God. Separation from God is the natural result of sin because God is holy to such a degree that He cannot possibly have any fellowship, friendship or relationship with that which is tainted by sin. (Leviticus 20:7; Psalm 5:4-5; Habakkuk 1:13; Revelation 21:27) The infinite holiness of God demands His wrath be leveled against all who commit sin. (Psalm 11:4-7; Psalm 34:15-16) Eternal suffering is the inevitable result of separation from God and falling under the wrath of God. God’s justice is not an arbitrary determination but the logical consequence of sin against the infinitely holy God. For God to change these consequences would be to violate His own justice. If God is in any way unjust then He cannot in any way be good.

Some will concede that God is just for punishing sin but it would be better if He were merciful to all men. The assertion effectively becomes that God is not good because He insists on justice. God would be good if He overlooked what is just to do what is loving. This argument falls down on the premise that something can be unjust and good. Injustice is never a good thing. Injustice may have a show of kindness to some, but it is inherently cruel to others. The response to recent officer involved shootings of children and adolescents illustrates this very well. Supposing an officer of the law carelessly caused the death of an innocent child, it would be evil to allow him to escape the legitimate consequence of his actions. The parents, the community and the police force would all be harmed by the denial of justice. If there are no consequences for ones actions and no retribution for the great wrongs done in this world then a persons actions in life are ultimately meaningless and God is the most evil being imaginable. For God to be good, He must also be unfailingly just.

Some believe that in making the promise of salvation God is promising to be unjust. A famous preacher recently said that God “broke the law for love”. Salvation in not unjust. The justice of God is in no way compromised by His promise of salvation. Salvation is not God’s promise to ignore a person’s sin if that person asks for forgiveness. God has never offered to forget about evil. God always punishes evil. The justice of God that always punishes sin and the mercy of God that offers salvation to men has provided a substitute to bear the punishment of sin so that sinful men will not have to bear that punishment themselves. The cross is the place where God’s mercy and justice are perfectly mingled. At the cross, God’s justice was satisfied and God’s mercy overflowed to all who would believe. At the cross mankind sees the full extent of the goodness of God goodness that is in no way contradictory to justice. A God who does not always punish evil is not the god of the Bible. A God who would not send men to hell would be unjust and evil.

What is the teological argument for the existence of God?

Two major philosophical arguments from nature are proposed as proofs for the existence of God, the cosmological argument and the teleological argument. The teleological argument is probably the easiest of the major philosophical arguments. It seeks to show that because the world has the appearance of being designed, there must be a designer.

Many observers see the appearance of design in the universe. The orderliness and complexity of the universe is analogous to the complex orderliness of man made objects. As a result the universe has the hallmarks of being designed. If the universe has been designed, then there must exist a Designer great enough and powerful enough to produce all that exists.

Probably the most familiar expression of this argument is the watchmaker analogy. If a person walking through an empty field were to suddenly find a watch laying upon the ground, he would conclude the watch was designed by a watchmaker. He would not assume the watch formed by natural, unguided processes. Because the universe is vastly more complicated than a watch it is logical to conclude the universe was designed by a Creator of vast intelligence.

One common proof offered for the argument from design is irreducible complexity. The evolutionary hypothesis explains the growth of life by a gradual, step by step process. The premise of irreducible complexity is some things found in nature cannot be explained by a step by step process of adding onepiece of information at a time. For example, a mousetrap is a device that cannot function if only one small part is removed. Some examples of irreducible complexity in the natural world are the eye, the bombadier beetle and the cell. These things cannot have arisen naturally by gradually adding information. Without all the parts present the organism would not function.

This argument has some Biblical foundation because the Bible uses the argument from design in at least two places, Psalm 19 and Romans 1. An argument similar to the teleological argument can also be found in the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel to show God is Creator of all and consequently is greater than all idols. However, the Bible never uses the obvious reality of a Creator to prove the existence of God. The Old Testament argues from creation to show the greatness of God and the folly of worshiping other gods. In Romans 1 the teleological argument is used as an indictment against those who have rejected God. Instead of worshiping God as they ought, unbelieving men have rejected nature’s obvious declaration of God’s existence and power. Unbelieving men replace God with gods of their devising and are under the judgment of God. God is the only creator of all. He has made His power and Deity evident through the handiwork of His creation. He must be worshiped.